General Paper Structure
Your finished paper should be linear and logical and will include an introduction, body and conclusion.
Your introduction grabs the reader's attention and gives a general overview of the paper. Within the introduction is your thesis statement: the main idea of your paper that outlines your topic and your position. The thesis statement is the most important sentence in your paper. Everything that you write in the rest of the paper must connect to your thesis statement.
The body of the paper contains paragraphs with main ideas that prove your thesis statement. In addition, the paragraphs contain support that develops the main ideas. You may have generated these main ideas using your prewriting strategy. Over time, these ideas can be put into your outline.
Regardless of the format of your outline, be sure that each paragraph in the body begins with a topic sentence. A topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph. It controls the content of the rest of the paragraph, just as your thesis statement controls the content of your paper.
After you've fully developed your body paragraphs, you need to tie your paper together in your conclusion. The conclusion captures your thesis and main ideas and reinforces your position on the topic.
Presentation on theme: "Preparing for the Persuasive Essay AICE: General Paper—9/Pavich."— Presentation transcript:
1 Preparing for the Persuasive Essay AICE: General Paper—9/Pavich
2 Review the list of “Section 3” prompts as a group. Consider the following: What prompts would you never write about? Why? Do any prompts actually scare you? Why? Are there any prompts you could you write to because of your own knowledge and interests, those unrelated to school learning?
3 THEN STRUCTURE: We will use the content we learned to see how it can be effectively organized into an ESSAY… We will learn how to ORGANIZE ideas in a persuasive fashion ;-) We will silence (some of) our Section 3 fears!
4 Before the facts, what are your thoughts on the following?? Define “MEDIA”…what does this entail? How do you feel about the media? What do you like about it? Dislike about it? How does it benefit our society? How does it hurt our society? Aside from your experiences with media in your own country, what are media sources like in other countries?
6 CONSTANT INFORMATION GATHERING Any essay begins with good ideas. In order to get those ideas, you have to do your homework, watch the news, make connections in what you’re learning in all of your classes… CONSTANT INFORMATION GATHERING ensures that you will have something to SAY in your essay!! SO LET’S LEARN ABOUT THE MEDIA (AS A SUBJECT IN GENERAL) FIRST…
7 NOW YOU SEE TROTSKY NEXT TO LENIN… NOW YOU DON’T!! During the Russian Revolution, Trotsky became an “enemy of the state” (recall how Snowball was exiled from Animal Farm )…the intent was to change the past so the leader never looks “bad” or “wrong” in the eyes of his people! “Can You Believe Your Eyes” article
8 NIKOLAI YEZHOV, CHIEF OF SOVIET SECRET POLICE…WALKING WITH STALIN AS HIS FRIEND AND TRUSTED COMPANION… POOF! THIS GUY WAS NEVER MY FRIEND…?! I HAVE THE PHOTOS TO PROVE IT!
9 The Newsweek cover is the original mug-shot, whereas the Time cover is digitally manipulated. O.J. Simpson's face is darker, blurrier and unshaven. It is clear that on the cover of Time, O.J. Simpson looks more sinister than he does on the cover of Newsweek. The manipulation therefore distorts the truth.
10 American Revolution : to whip up revolutionary sentiment against the British in 1775, American colonists used the printing press, where they emblazoned pamphlets with a ready-to-strike coiled rattlesnake and the catchy “don’t tread on me” slogan.
11 MODERN MANIPULATION: Using Media to Communicate Terrorism Concerns This parody of an Uncle Sam Poster uses the image of Osama Bin Laden to comment on America’s dependence on oil from the Middle East and how our purchase of oil to supply our needs inadvertently funds terrorism.
12 NUCLEAR EMERGENCY (inspired after Japan’s march disaster) EDVARD MUNCH: THE SCREAM
13 Using Media to Communicate Health Concerns The makers of this parody of Camel cigarettes packaging were criticizing tobacco and advertising companies that collaborate to sell such lethal products. By making the cigarette ads appealing, they are literally selling a death sentence to the consumer. “Cancer sticks: a unique blend of high powered advertising and the people who fall for it.”
14 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Its sole purpose is to protect the consumer! Responsible for overseeing companies to ensure that the follow truth-in-advertising laws Better Business Bureau Also oversees companies and settles disputes over advertising between companies (Campell’s and Progress soup campaigns) and company vs. customer Legal Action Companies can sue other companies for unfair or fraudulent advertising claims (AT&T sued Verizon, UPS sued FedEx!) Libel Laws…lying in print will result in lawsuit, fines, and jail! “Truth in Advertising” article
15 “”: product placement; naturally weaving advertising into media sources “ADVERTAINMENT”: product placement; naturally weaving advertising into media sources PROBLEM : Modern technology is hurting American businesses. DVR hurts commercial biz SOLUTION : Internet hurts music biz SOLUTION : Unrestricted media is free to explore creative new ways to turn a profit, and thus stimulate the economy. “Advertainment” has doubled revenue (20 mil last year)! SUPPORT EXAMPLE: SUPPORT EXAMPLE: LADY GAGA’s video “Telephone” is one example of a media program filled with advertisements for products including Diet Coke (seen left), Verizon Wireless, and even Miracle Whip. Media can help stimulate the economy
16 Americans FREELY Google “Tiananmen Square” Chinese Google “Tiananmen Square” under RESTRICTIONS… “The Rise of China” article
17 So Google stopped doing business with them…RIP…
18 “North Korea” article
19 Cultural Isolation from the rest of the world… “In recent years, conditions within North Korea have continued to deteriorate. The state-run economy is in shambles… It is probably the most isolated country on earth. There is no Internet for ordinary citizens. TVs and radios are altered so they receive only government channels. Punishment for watching foreign films or TV shows is stiff—six months in a labor camp for watching a Jackie Chan action movie from Hong Kong.” --UPFRONT MAGAZINE
20 Amendment I… Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
21 Connecting Learned Knowledge to the GP From Info-Gathering to Brainstorm to Essay
22 Guess what? You just learned enough information to enhance the content of several essay prompts! MEDIA PROMPTS: Can the media ever be relied upon to convey the truth? Should the press be completely free? “Advertising is a modern art form.” Do you agree? In what ways can advertising be useful and entertaining? “Advertisements always promise more than they deliver.” Discuss. Assess the claim that an uncensored press is dangerous. How far should the media of any society reflect the views of its leaders? Assess the qualities to be found in a good advertisement. “The media can be largely blamed for a worldwide increase in violence.” To what extent do you agree?
23 Think Smart: The prompts in the list below are NOT “media” prompts in the direct sense; but how can you use your new “media” knowledge to weigh in on the matters below? Is television anything more than an escape from reality? Account for the ever-increasing popularity of digital photography? “All art is useless.” Discuss. “In the modern world, image is everything.” Are films or movies only for entertainment and nothing else?
25 RESTRICT MEDIA: Otherwise, it unfairly manipulates its viewers Otherwise, it can be misleading/ deceiving Doing so helps shield the public from inappropriate content/filters it DO NOT RESTRICT: rights It’s part of our rights as citizens political It helps us openly communicate on a political level economy It stimulates the economy We already have restrictions in place that work
27 Before you begin writing, draft a quick THESIS statement…this is the main idea of your essay and will guide discussion of ideas in an organized fashion.
28 democratic economy political socially Since it is such an invaluable resource to its audience, modern media should not be limited in a democratic society because it fuels the economy, it enhances the political landscape, and it socially empowers its citizens.
29 Let’s take a look at a SAMPLE ESSAY SAMPLE ESSAY
30 A frail, bald, toothless woman explains to the audience in a raspy smoker’s voice how she gets ready for her day. She puts in false teeth, adjusts her wig and places her hands-free voice box on her throat before she ties a scarf around her neck to cover the hole there, the result of a previous surgery to remove throat cancer. The 30-second television commercial is part of the national 2012 Smoking Campaign that uses graphic, true-to-life images, which are intended to shock people into giving up their smoking habit. Knowledge like this is shared with society through various forms of media, including television, newspapers, magazines, radio, and of course, the Internet. Since it is such an invaluable resource to its audience, modern media should not be limited in a democratic society because it fuels the economy, it enhances the political landscape, and it socially empowers its citizens. Attention- Getter Transition to Topic Thesis
31 TOPIC SENTENCE: Television is on of the most powerful forms of communication, and the freedom to air without restriction can greatly benefit American businesses and the U.S. ECONOMY. “Now That’s Advertainment” article + “Truth in Advertising” articles
32 TOPIC SENTENCE: Not only does a non-restricted media help economically, it also enhances society’s POLITICAL landscape. American Revolution knowledge + “The Art of Dissent” article
33 TOPIC SENTENCE: However, if we restrict the media, it could negatively affect our social rights. “The Rise of China” article North Korea knowledge
34 Realize that your audience won’t necessarily agree with everything you have to say… When you brainstorm, anticipate destroy or minimize opposing viewpoints When you brainstorm, anticipate the points that might be raised against your argument, and use concrete examples to either destroy or minimize these opposing viewpoints.
35 The media should be restricted because too much freedom in the media can lead to deceit and manipulation of ideas. Recall the ideas below that you originally considered that your audience could also be thinking about… STALIN/RUSSIAN REVOLUTION TIME MAGAZINE/O.J. SIMPSON
36 STRIKE BACK by starting with any of the following approaches: manipulation Although some media companies have been guilty of unfair manipulation in the past such as Time Magazine’s sinister depiction of O.J. Simpson prior to his conviction, most news organizations have strict rules prohibiting this behavior. Federal Trade Commission: truth-in-advertising laws Better Business Bureau Better Business Bureau : complaints and intervention Legal Action Legal Action: companies suing companies (AT&T sued Verizon; FedEx sued UPS) as a form of “self-policing” “Truth in Advertising” & “Can You Believe Your Eyes?” articles
37 And while it may be true that information has been manipulated in the past by Communist dictators like Russia’s Stalin, Cuba’s Castro, and China’s Mao, this type of behavior is not typical in a modern, democratic society. These authoritarian leaders are an exception to the rule. More often than not, there are rules and consequences for political figures who take the dangerous risk of manipulating the media to lie to the public…
38 Insert them anywhere into the body paragraph discussion to strengthen a point further. Be careful how you word them…don’t contradict yourself or you’ll weaken your own argument! Spend minimal time raising the opposition’s view (point), and spend maximum time presenting the evidence you have to refute this view (counter). This will make it clear where your allegiance lies!
39 In conclusion, limiting media in a democratic society will only bring about negative consequences that impact citizens’ financial, political, and social well-being. While some exceptions to the rule might exist, more often than not a free and unlimited press helps a society thrive because it provides a trustworthy medium for communicating, and it educates the people so they can make informed decisions. Since 1989, the American television station, NBC, has aired their public-service campaign called, “The More You Know.” The goal of these commercials is to provide its audience of over 60 million viewers with information they can use to prevent issues such as child abuse, drinking and driving accidents, while promoting issues like Internet safety. As a members of society, the more we know, leads to the more united we are as a people, and a free press is the best way to guarantee us access to this empowering gift of knowledge. Briefly summarize essay content Present a final image that resonates with the audience Encourage audience a final time to adopt your side of the argument
40 Begin and end creatively… Relate to your audience on a human level Appeal to their minds, their hearts, and their values ( logos, pathos, ethos !) Back up every idea with PROOF! Face it…you need concrete evidence to win your audience over…once you establish a basic, logical point, get specific…and remember, try to what HAS happened, as opposed to what “could” happen (local/national/international examples) ! Anticipate your audience’s doubts against your argument like you would do in a Debate “Cross Examination” round, and be prepared to override them with stronger evidence on your side ( point-counterpoint !!)
41 PRACTICING THE PERSUASIVE: Cooperative Group Brainstorm Independent Intro-Writing + Peer Evaluation Independent Body-Paragraphing + Peer Evaluation Point-Counterpoint Practice REVISION for Homework Conclusion Peer Eval.
42 PRACTICING THE PERSUASIVE: Individual Essay Peer Swap/Read/Critique Group Debrief/Sharing/Teacher Feedback
43 PowerPoint (Credits: Pavich) Upfront Articles: “Can You Believe Your Eyes?” by Bill Marsha (Nov. 23, 2009) “Truth in Advertising?” by Stephanie Clifford (Mar. 1, 2010) “That’s Advertainment” by Veronica Majerol (Jan. 10, 2011) “The Art of Dissent” by Veronica Majerol (May 9, 2011) “The Rise of China” by Michael Wines (Sept. 5, 2011) “The 30-Second Campaign” by Veronica Majerol (Sept. 17, 2012) Persuasive vs. Discursive: Intros and Conclusion handouts (Credits: Pavich) Types of Propoganda & Propoganda in Literature handout (Credits: Gross/Esposito)